Modelo de cobertura de desastres (MCD): seis dimensiones para enfrentar actividades y flujos de trabajo de periodistas y departamentos de noticias

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5294/pacla.2021.24.4.4

Palabras clave:

Periodismo, gestión de desastres, gestión de riesgos, cobertura, comunicaciones, departamentos de noticias, medios de comunicación

Resumen

El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar, clasificar y categorizar las actividades pertinentes relativas al trabajo periodístico en la cobertura de desastres de gran magnitud, así como desarrollar un modelo conceptual que las organice teóricamente. Para ello se siguieron una serie de etapas empíricas de recopilación de datos (a través de entrevistas en profundidad y análisis de contenido) y luego aplicamos el enfoque teórico de construcción de bloques que utiliza conceptos para crear constructos y ponerlos en funcionamiento. El resultado principal es un modelo de seis dimensiones basado en las preguntas tradicionales del proceso periodístico: cómo, por qué, quién, cuándo, qué y dónde. Estas preguntas engloban las seis dimensiones detectadas que enfrenta el proceso de cobertura periodística de desastres de gran magnitud o incluso de crisis sociales de gran relevancia. El modelo propuesto abarca los múltiples aspectos que comprende la cobertura de desastres: los desafíos emocionales, logísticos, profesionales y éticos, así como las fases, los actores y roles principales, así como sus demandas y necesidades de acuerdo a la fase y/o el tipo de desastre que estén enfrentando. Sobre todo, interrelaciona al grupo de potenciales actividades que los periodistas deben enfrentar y ejecutar al cubrir desastres de gran magnitud o crisis sociales importantes. Su mayor contribución es hacer accesible una herramienta teórica útil tanto para la academia como para los medios, y que apunta a una gestión matricial y versátil de la información en estos casos.

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Biografía del autor/a

Daniela Grassau, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Periodista de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Magíster en Comunicación Social de la Universidad de Chile y actual doctorando en Sociología en la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

Citas

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2021-12-13

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Pellegrini, S., Grassau, D., & Puente, S. (2021). Modelo de cobertura de desastres (MCD): seis dimensiones para enfrentar actividades y flujos de trabajo de periodistas y departamentos de noticias. Palabra Clave, 24(4), e2444. https://doi.org/10.5294/pacla.2021.24.4.4

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